Robert Paris Carroll

Robert Paris Carroll was an educator, Prohibitionist politician, and 1930 Prohibition Party/Law Preservation Party candidate for Governor of New York. 
     Robert P. Carroll was born on March 11, 1886, in Rheingold, Georgia. He was the son of William F. and Helen C. Carroll. By 1900, the family had moved to Manhattan, New York City, New York. Carroll studied at Emory and Henry College in Emery, Virginia, then at Columbia College, where he earned a Master’s degree and a PhD. 
     By 1916, Robert Carroll had married Ruby S. Carroll of Pennsylvania. They had three children: Raymond C. (b.1916), Sarah R. (b.1921), and Ruth E. (b.1930/31). During World War I, Carroll served in the U.S. military and spend several months stationed in France. 
     Robert Carroll pursued a career as an educator, focusing on education and educational psychology. He became a professor in the Teacher’s College of Syracuse University.  In 1923, Carroll became director of Educational Psychology in the Teacher’s College of Syracuse University. He retained that position until at least 1930. He wrote several books and shorter articles on education and educational psychology.  He was a member of Kappa Phi Kappa, Phi Kappa Phi, and Phi Delta Kappa.
      In 1930, Robert Carroll entered into a state governor’s race where contentions over prohibition were a significant issue. National Prohibition had been in place for 10 years. For years, the New York Democratic Party had been dominated by anti-prohibition elements. The Democratic Party nominated incumbent governor Franklin Roosevelt for reelection.
      At their 1930 state convention, the New York Republican Party favored repealing the 18th Amendment, much to the objection of prohibition-supporting members of their party, and it nominated U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of New York, Charles H. Tuttle, for governor. Tuttle alienated many of the prohibition-supporting members of the Republican party by not supporting the 18th Amendment and wanting to go back to when states and localities decided whether or not to allow the sale of alcohol.  As a result, a significant number of prohibition-supporting voters (who tended to vote Republican) and several prohibition-supporting organizations in the state turned against Tuttle and the state’s Republican Party.
      In 1930, the New York state branch of the Prohibition Party rebranded itself as the Law Preservation Party. It worked to attract support from prohibition-supporting voters disaffected by the Democratic and Republican parties. The Party gained the backing of the New York Women’s Christian Temperance Union, the New York Anti-Saloon League, the New York Civic League, and the New York Federation of Churches.  At a meeting at the state WCTU headquarters in Manhattan. Robert Carroll was selected as the Law Preservation candidate for Governor. The Party and its supporters petitioned to place Robert Carroll on the ballot for Governor and Grace Robertson Hale for Attorney General. 
     The Republican Party and its backers challenged the Prohibition ballot access petition.  Carroll’s petition held up, and he was able to get on the ballot, but Hale's was rejected. In his campaign, Carroll focused strongly on the issues of prohibition, the constitution, and anti-corruption. Carroll’s campaign portrayed him as a strong supporter of prohibition and the constitution. Carroll supported having the state legislature pass a stronger state prohibition enforcement law, similar to the Muller-Gage law (a prohibition enforcement law in New York state that had been repealed before 1930). He supported using the power of the governor’s office and state law to remove district attorneys, sheriffs, and other law enforcement officials who failed or refused to enforce state prohibition laws.
     Carroll stated that Democrat and Republican co-operation with liquor and big business interests was “sinister, underhanded, diabolical, and contemptible”. He criticized Charles Tuttle’s attempt to portray himself as an anti-corruption figure. He contended that, while Tuttle talked up his intention to take on Tammany Hall corruption, Tuttle had a history of overlooking the corruption of Republican Party politicians and their rich financial backers, and that he could not be trusted to take any substantive action to seriously address corruption in the state. 
      He contended that Tuttle ignored key issues facing the state. He encouraged ordinarily-Republican voters to vote for him instead of Tuttle, stating that they “don’t have to follow any Republican leader into the saloon. When he goes there, he’s no longer the leader.” Overall, Carroll contended that voting for him was a vote in favor of strong enforcement of prohibition, in favor of the constitution, and against the corruption of the Democratic and Republican Parties. 
     During the campaign, Carroll reportedly spent much of his time campaigning in upstate New York, though he also made some visits to New York City and Long Island. In the election, Robert Carroll received 190,666 votes (6.05% of the total vote) and came in third place. This was the largest number of votes and the largest percentage of votes received by any Prohibition Party candidate for Governor of New York. Carroll won in Yates County, New York, with 35.98% of the vote. He came in second place in Chemung County, receiving more votes than Tuttle. He received over 10% of the vote in 39 counties and over 20% of the vote in 13 counties. His vote percentages tended to be larger in the western, central, and northern parts of the state and smaller in New York City and in counties with other large cities. 
     At some point between 1932 and 1940, Carroll moved to Bristol, Sullivan County, Tennessee, and he appears to have remained there for the remainder of his life. Robert Carroll died on March 28, 1954 and was buried at Glenwood Cemetery. 

Sources:

“All Drys Should Support Carroll for Governor: Why?”. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. “Brooklyn, New York. November 3, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/58228194/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“BAUMES SHUNS STAND OF TUTTLE ON REPEAL; Says He Will Back Running Mate Fully, but Is Not Ready to Give His Prohibition Views. DRYS PLAN FOR A BATTLE Leaders Will Centre Fire on Head of Ticket--Stimson Sends Felicitations to Him. Dry Ticket Incomplete. BAUMES IS SILENT ON REPEAL STAND Baumes Appears Nervous. Puts Blame on Tuttle. Leaders Map Campaign. Drive Opens Here Tuesday.” New York Times. (New York City, New York). October 4, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/1930/10/04/archives/baumes-shuns-stand-of-tuttle-on-repeal-says-he-will-back-running.html 
“Break from Prohibition Seems Likely”. Times Herald. (Olean, New York). September 25, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/23239962/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Carrol Assails ‘Insincerity’ of Tuttle’s Drive”. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. “Brooklyn, New York. October 21, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/57410554/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Carroll Fight is Scheduled for Tomorrow”. Standard Union. (Brooklyn, New York). October 16, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/543726534/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Carroll Petition Held Acceptable”. The Yonkers Herald. (Yonkers, New York). October 15, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/677037718/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
Carroll, Robert P. “The Effect of Practice on the Homogeneity of a Group.” Journal of Educational Psychology 23, no. 6 (September 1932): 462–64. https://doi.org/DOI:10.1037/h0070226.   
“Drys Assemble for Selection of a Candidate”. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. “Brooklyn, New York. September 29, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020.  https://www.newspapers.com/image/59875894/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Drys Declare War on Tuttle; Name Carroll”. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. “Brooklyn, New York. September 30, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/59876247/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“DRYS TO NOMINATE DR. CARROLL TODAY; Petitions for Independent Candidate for Governor Will Be Filed at Albany. DEMOCRATS MAP CAMPAIGN Roosevelt Will Stress. "Quibbling" Charge Against Tuttle on State Enforcement Bill.” New York Times. (New York City, New York). October 7, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/1930/10/07/archives/drys-to-nominate-dr-carroll-today-petitions-for-independent.html 
Dutcher, Rodney. “Daily Washington Letter”. The Southeast Missourian. (Cape Girardeau, Missouri). August 12, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020.  
“Flatbush W.C.T.U. Urges Speedup of Carroll Campaign”. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. “Brooklyn, New York. October 17, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/57410359/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Heights Greets Prof. Carroll, Dry Candidate”. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. “Brooklyn, New York. November 2, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/58228060/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Law Preservation Party Names Carroll”. The Yonkers Herald. (Yonkers, New York). September 30, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/677032361/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“New York Drys Will Put Third Party in Field”. The Meriden Daily Journal. (Meriden, Connecticut). September 27, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=3e1IAAAAIBAJ&sjid=KgINAAAAIBAJ&pg=4070,1757135&dq=charles+tuttle+nominated&hl=en 
Nicholson, S.E. “Why I cannot Support Mr. Tuttle”. The Canaseraga Times. (Canaseraga, New York). October 16, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=j5ZFAAAAIBAJ&sjid=Ib0MAAAAIBAJ&pg=3045,1210390&dq=charles+tuttle+prohibition&hl=en 
“NY Governor Race - Nov 04, 1930.” Our Campaigns. Accessed December 29, 2020. https://www.ourcampaigns.com/RaceDetail.html?RaceID=94435    
“Other Past Candidates: New York”. Partisan Prohibition Historical Society. Prohibitionists.org. Accessed December 29, 2020. http://www.prohibitionists.org/Candidates/candidates.html 
“Part of Vote for Carroll Not Reported, Up-State Drys Stays”. The Yonkers Herald. (Yonkers, New York). November 6, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/677053243/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Protest Brands Petition Nominating Carroll a Fraud”. Yonkers Statesman. (Yonkers, New York). October 9, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/676112161/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Results Vary Over Country on Dry Issue”. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. (Brooklyn, New York). November 5, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/58228228/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Revolt Against Tuttle by Drys”. The Yonkers Herald. (Yonkers, New York). October 6, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/677034453/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
Robert P. Carroll: Find A Grave Index. Family Search. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:QVGP-Y378  
Robert P Carroll: New York State Census, 1905. Family Search. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:SPN9-LGZ  
Robert P Carroll: United States Census, 1900. Family Search. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MSKL-8VZ  
Robert P Carroll: United States Census, 1910. Family Search. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:M574-FCN  
Robert P Carroll: United States Census, 1920. Family Search. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:MJB6-NQL 
Robert O Carroll: United States Census, 1930. Family Search. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:X4RR-CMP 
Robert P Carroll: United States Census, 1940. Family Search. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:K489-CS7 
“Roosevelt Reelected Governor of New York”. The Reading Eagle. (Reading, Pennsylvania). November 5, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020.
“Roosevelt Reelected Governor of New York”. The Reading Eagle. (Reading, Pennsylvania). November 5, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=Oh8xAAAAIBAJ&sjid=seEFAAAAIBAJ&pg=6046,754904&dq=franklin+roosevelt+reelected&hl=en 
“SMITH RIDICULES REPUBLICAN WETS; They Illustrate Latest "Duck and Dodge" of Party on Prohibition, He Says. CITES TUTTLE AND BAUMES Opening Tour at Troy, He Entertains Crowd With Review of "Dry-Wet Policy." Contrasts Candidates' View. SMITH RIDICULES REPUBLICAN WETS Mullan-Gage Law Repealed. Assembly and Senate Differ. Wets Nominated. Brings "History" to This Year. Quotes Baumes's Replies. Refers to Assemblyman Jenks.” New York Times. (New York City, New York). October 24, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/1930/10/24/archives/smith-ridicules-republican-wets-they-illustrate-latest-duck-and.html 
“State Dry Party Files Petitions for Two Nominees”. Brooklyn Daily Eagle. (Brooklyn, New York). October 8, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/685963444/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“TUTTLE IS APPOINTED TO SUCCEED BUCKNER; Coolidge Names Him Federal Attorney for This District After Talk With Hilles. TO START WITHIN A WEEK New Prosecutor Is Silent on His Attitude Toward Dry Law Enforcement. TUTTLE APPOINTED TO SUCCEED BUCKNER”. New York Times. (New York City, New York). March 30, 1927. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/1927/03/30/archives/tuttle-is-appointed-to-succeed-buckner-coolidge-names-him-federal-a.html 
“Tuttle Charges Make Campaign Sparkle on Roosevelt’s Doorstep”. Middletown Times Herald. (Middletown, New York). October 9, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/47450106/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Tuttle Dodging Dry Question, Carroll Says”. Yonkers Statesman. (Yonkers, New York). October 21, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/676112644/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Tuttle Victory by 38,000 In Nassau and Suffolk GOP Heads Forecast”. Times Union. (Brooklyn, New York). November 3, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/560003179/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“TUTTLE WON'T SIGN A STATE DRY LAW LIKE VOLSTEAD ACT; In Reply to Roosevelt, He Pledges Dry Enforcement Under Nuisance Statute. HOLDS OFFICERS LIABLE Sees It Vital to Uphold National Edict Rather Than Wait for State Enactment. ASKS QUESTION IN TURN Wants to Know if Governor Backs His Own Stand or That in Party Platform.” New York Times. (New York City, New York). October 3, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/1930/10/03/archives/tuttle-wont-sign-a-state-dry-law-like-volstead-act-in-reply-to.html 
“Vote Dry, End Repeal Talk, Carroll Urges”. The Yonkers Herald. (Yonkers, New York). October 21, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/677039447/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 
“Wets Jeopardized the Chance of G.O.P. Minister Avers”. Times Union. (Brooklyn, New York). November 3, 1930. Accessed, December 29, 2020. https://www.newspapers.com/image/559097333/?terms=robert%20carroll%20prohibition&match=1 

-- Information from Jonathan Makeley, writing in the New York Prohibitionist v.3 #11.

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