Examples of research findings on alcoholism,
WHO has the problem
Researchers provide much data on a key underlying factor in alcoholism.
If adhered to, this would prevent much tragedy including drunk driving.
What is it that medical analysts and doctors have found?
"Nearly all alcoholics, recovered or otherwise, are heavy smokers,"
observed Arthur Cain, M.D., in The Cigarette Habit: An Easy Cure (NY:
Dolphin Books, 1964), p 4.
Dr. Forest S. Tennant, Jr., "pointed out that in almost every case
adults who have problems with alcohol are cigarette smokers." 27
Smoke Signals (#1) 1 (Jan 1981).
"Smoking prevalence among active alcoholics approaches 90%."-
J. T. Hayes, K. P. Offord, I. T. Croghan, D. R. Schroeder, R. D. Hurt
(ASAM), D. E. Jorenby, "Alcoholism and Nicotine Dependence Treatment,"
15 Journal of Addictive Diseases 135 (1996); conclusion supported by L.
C. Sobell, M. B. Sobell, L. T. Kozloski, and T. Toneatto, et al., "Alcohol
or Tobacco Research vs Alcohol and Tobacco Research," 85 Br J Addict
(#2) 263-269 (Feb 1990); and J. Istvan and J. D. Matarazzo, "Tobacco,
Alcohol and Caffeine Use: A Review of Their Interrelationships, 95 Psychol
Bull (#2) 310-326 (March 1984).
This is ancient data, long known:
- "[T]he antidotal effect of tobacco makes drinking of stimulating
liquors the natural consequence of smoking."-Dr. Albert L. Gihon,
in The Surgeon General's Report (1881).
- "[Tobacco] is unquestionably the greatest obstacle existing to
the progress of temperance; and never will this cause triumph; never
will alcoholic drinks be discarded as a beverage, until tobacco ceases
to be used . . ."-The Mysteries of Tobacco, by Rev. Benjamin I.
Lane (New York: Wiley and Putnam, 1845), p 87.
- "It is my conviction that while the use of tobacco continues,
intemperance will continue to curse the world; the use of tobacco leads
to the use of intoxicating drinks. They are all of one family."
Lane, supra, p 145.
- "[S]moking, even in what is called a moderate degree . . . acts
as an inducement to drinking-thus becoming the source of intemperance,
and all its accompanying evils. It is notorious that the practices are,
almost without exception, inseparably associated. The remark has become
a maxim: "Smoking induces drinking, drinking jaundice, and jaundice
death."-The Use and Abuse of Tobacco, by Surgeon John Lizars (Edinburgh,
Scotland: 1859), pages 50-51. Wherefore Dr. Lizars in 1859 recommended
a total ban on tobacco sales, to both adults and youth, see p 49. (His
book was reprinted in 1883 here in America.)
- "Smoking is also said to induce an inclination to strong drinks.
The ill effects of the tobacco seem to be momentarily counteracted by
the alcohol, and the stimulating effects of the intoxicating liquors
are moderated by the tobacco. Thus it happens that drinkers are always
smokers, and thus it is also that smoking often leads to drinking."-Dr.
John Hinds, The Use of Tobacco (Nashville, Tenn: Cumberland Presbyterian
Publishing House, 1882), pp 125-126.
- "In my experience non-smokers hardly ever become drunkards, while
nearly all drunkards are smokers."-Herbert H. Tidswell, M.D., The
Tobacco Problem (London: J. & A. Churchill, 1912), p 41.
- Smoking "tends to produce a huskiness of the mouth, which calls
for some liquid. Water is too insipid, as the nerves of taste are in
a half-palsied state, from the influence of tobacco-smoke; hence, in
order to be tasted, an article of a pungent or stimulating character
is resorted to, and hence the kindred habits of smoking and drinking."-Reuben
D. Mussey, M.D., LL.D., Health: Its Friends and Its Foes (Boston: Gould
& Lincoln, 1862), p 104.
- "Naturally, one drug habit leads to another. It is rare to find
an alcoholic who does not use tobacco in some form and often other drugs
are used. There is a special reason for the association of the alcohol
and tobacco habits; a physiologic reason: Alcohol is a drug antidote
for tobacco. Tobacco contracts the small arteries. This is the reason
for the pallor observed in young smokers and in old smokers who have
smoked to excess. Alcohol produces the opposite effect. It dilates the
small arteries. This is the reason for the flushed face of the beer
drinker and the red nose of the whiskey toper. A man who has smoked
until his arteries are contracted, feels tense, nervous, irritable,
restless, in spite of the narcotic effects of the drug. His blood-pressure
is high and his breath a little "short." Besides, his secretions
are checked, his mouth is dry. Alcohol reverses these conditions. A
cocktail or a toddy, a glass of champagne or a bottle of beer, relaxes
the blood-vessels, relieves the nerve tension, restores comfort and
so opens the way for more cigars."-John H. Kellogg, M.D., LL.D.,
F.A.C.S., Tobaccoism, or, How Tobacco Kills (Battle Creek, Michigan:
Modern Medicine Pub Co, 1922), pp 125-126.
- And, "c'est tabac qui pousse aux liqueurs fortes, comme antidote
de se effets toxiques."-Dr. Hippolyte A. Depierris, Physiologie
Sociale: Le Tabac (Paris: Dentu, 1876), pp 367 and 304, respectively.
(Tobacco leads to strong drink (as an antidote to tobacco's toxic effects),
and leads to delirium tremens).
- "Rum drinking will not cease, till tobacco chewing, and tobacco
smoking, and snuff-taking, shall cease. Though all who are attached
to the quid, the pipe, or the snuffbox, are not attached to the bottle;
yet a vast multitude become attached to the bottle, and this attachment
is continual and increased, through the poisonous, bewitching, and debasing
influence of tobacco."-Rev. Orin S. Fowler, Disquisition on the
Evils of Using Tobacco, and the Necessity of Immediate and Entire Reformation
(Providence: S. R. Weeden, 1833), p 4.
- "One of the usual effects of smoking and chewing is thirst. This
thirst cannot be allayed by water, for no sedative or even insipid liquor
will be relished after the mouth and throat have been exposed to the
stimulus of the smoke, or juice of Tobacco. A desire of course is excited
for strong drink, and these when taken between meals soon lead to intemperance
and drunkenness. One of the greatest sots I ever knew, acquired a love
for ardent spirits by swallowing cuds of Tobacco, which he did, to escape
detection in the use of it, for he had contracted the habit of chewing,
contrary to the advice and commands of his father. He died of a Dropsy
under my care in the year 1780."-Dr. Benjamin Rush, First U.S.
Surgeon General, "Observations Upon the Influence of the Habitual
Use of Tobacco Upon Health, Morals, and Property" (Philadelphia:
T. & W. Bradford Pub, 1798), p 267.
- Wherefore, in 1892, WCTU members during the term of Francis Willard,
M.S., M.A., LL.D., (1879-1898) sent Congress thousands of petitions
for banning cigarettes. Congress reacted by . . . doing nothing, having
no sincere interest in preventing alcoholism!